新型態肉製產品的發展:Beyond Meat

撰稿:林晉丞 Frank Lin

審稿:黃云宣

Beyond Meat Inc. 創立於2009年,創辦人為伊森・布朗(Ethan Brown)。前稱為Savage River, Inc.,於2018年9月改為現用名稱,該公司是一家研發並生產全植物成分(plant-based)之人造肉公司,其產品標榜不含轉基因成分、生物工程成分、激素、抗生素或膽固醇 [1]。總部位於美國加利福尼亞州洛杉磯郡El Segundo,生產工廠則位於密蘇里州 Columbia。Beyond Meat 的 plant-based 人造肉產品品項包括漢堡肉、雞柳條和香腸產品等。目前全職員工約700人,投資人有微軟(Microsoft Corp.)創辦人比爾·蓋茨(Bill Gates)、泰森食品公司(Tyson Foods)、Twitter創辦人比茲·斯通(Biz Stone)與美國人道協會等。此外,該公司也與麥當勞、全食超市(Whole Foods Market)、A&W 及肯德基等業者合作推出plant-based漢堡肉及雞塊產品 [1]。

傳統肉品製造的能源消耗議題常受關注,Beyond Meat 的植物肉製造過程相對消耗較少資源,且排放較少溫室氣體,Beyond Meat 希望藉此能促進環境永續,同時減少動物宰殺,此外,他們也致力於提供更健康的植物肉品。Beyond Meat 起初主要發展冷凍雞肉,隨後其plant-based漢堡肉商品逐漸得到了消費者的認可,多數消費者表示可接受的原因為此產品「看起來及品嘗起來和傳統牛肉未有太大區別」[2]。

Beyond Meat 漢堡肉以五大成分為主,使植物肉能有近似肉品的外觀、口感與營養價值。其蛋白質來源主要為豌豆萃取蛋白(pea protein),亦含有肉品應有的礦物質成分,油脂則由可可脂、椰子油等提供;馬鈴薯澱粉與植物衍生纖維締造了近似肉品的口感,肉色則來自於甜菜根與蘋果萃取物 [1];另外,成分中也含有抗壞血酸(ascorbic acid)以維持肉色。

Beyond Meat的主要競爭對手為Impossible Burger,同樣為植物肉製造公司,然其漢堡肉排主要成分為大豆萃取蛋白,而鮮紅肉色則來自 soy leghemoglobin 的色素。有別於Beyond Meat標榜其商品皆為非基因改造,Impossible meat 的漢堡肉則使用基因改造黃豆。兩公司近期發展策略也有所不同,Beyond Meat 著重在開發與動物性產品有相當營養成分之植物性蛋白肉品,以建立消費者對其品牌之信任,Impossible Meat 則積極研發口感盡可能與動物蛋白相似的產品,也發展魚類和乳製品的替代品以擴大其市場版圖。

然而植物肉產品在快速發展的同時,也有許多消費者不願接受此類產品。先前調查發現[4],美國消費者較中、印消費者更不能接受植物肉產品(圖一) [5]。除因植物肉品售價較高,較多調味劑(尤其是鈉含量)也使消費者擔憂 [6]。一般而言植物肉普遍有較高鈉含量,以植物肉漢堡排為例,每100克平均約有370毫克的鈉,而傳統牛肉餡每100克僅約有80毫克之鈉含量 [7]。此外,畜牧業團體也積極遊說,影響植物性肉類產品的相關法規,如密蘇里州已規定人造肉產品需有明顯標示“plant-based” ,“veggie” ,“lab-grown”等字樣,部分州也要求 plant-based 肉品與傳統肉品分開擺放 [8],無異打擊了 Beyond Meat 希望植物肉品與傳統肉品並陳,以提高消費者接受度的策略 [3]。

圖一、美國、中國與印度消費者對植物性肉類產品之接受度
圖片來源:https://www.vox.com/2019/5/28/18626859/meatless-meat-explained-vegan-impossible-burger

2019 年 5 月 2 日,Beyond Meat 在納斯達克上市,代號BYND。當時開盤價為46 美元,較發行價 25 美元上漲 84%。IPO 當日股價更大漲至 65.75 美元。然而公司2021 年第二季度的運營虧損為 1,860 萬美元,較去年同期的營運虧損多約1,000萬美元,主因為整體員工人數的增長與COVID-19導致產品重新包裝的成本上升[9]。即使在虧損的情形下,Beyond Meat 的執行長 Ethan Brown表示,公司已與KFC, Taco Bell, Pizza Hut簽約進行各式合作,希望持續推廣植物肉增加消費者接受度,但Brown也表示短時間植物性蛋白取代動物性蛋白產品仍具相當大的挑戰 [10]。

Beyond Meat 公司推出的 plant-based 產品為人們在肉品的選擇上多了另一個選項,且其生產的產品可避免傳統家畜禽養殖對環境的破壞。然而使投資人對Beyond Meat品牌的信賴、消費者接受新型態之肉品與法規的限制等,是該公司所面臨的挑戰。此外,對消費者說服從傳統肉品轉向購買植物肉產品的行銷與資訊傳達,也是該公司需要持續增進的重要課題。

[1] Beyond Meat 官網

https://www.beyondmeat.com/mission/

[2] Beyond Meat SEC filings: Registration Statement (2018)

https://investors.beyondmeat.com/static-files/449bdd80-f49b-4ea1-9882-a861d2fab52d

[3] The Audacious (and Risky) Strategy That Made Beyond Meat a Billion-Dollar Company

https://www.inc.com/brit-morse/beyond-meat-ethan-brown-whole-foods-strategy.html

[4] A Survey of Consumer Perceptions of Plant-Based and Clean Meat in the USA, India, and China

https://doi.org/10.3389/fsufs.2019.00011

[5] The rise of meatless meat, explained

https://www.vox.com/2019/5/28/18626859/meatless-meat-explained-vegan-impossible-burger

[6] 3 big reasons why Beyond Meat won’t make big inroads with consumers over coronavirus even as supermarkets give it more shelf space

https://www.marketwatch.com/story/3-big-reasons-why-beyond-meat-wont-make-big-inroads-with-consumers-over-coronavirus-even-as-supermarkets-give-it-more-shelf-space-2020-05-27

[7] Fueled By Science: Are fake meat burgers healthy?

[8] What’s in a Name? The Plant-Based Foods Labeling Debate

https://www.foley.com/en/insights/publications/2019/10/whats-in-a-name-plant-based-foods-labeling-debate

[9] BEYOND MEAT® REPORTS SECOND QUARTER 2021 FINANCIAL RESULTS

https://investors.beyondmeat.com/news-releases/news-release-details/beyond-meatr-reports-second-quarter-2021-financial-results

[10] Beyond Meat just signed a multi-year deal with McDonald’s on the McPlant Burger, and said it would also create plant-based menus for Taco Bell, KFC, and Pizza Hut​​https://www.businessinsider.com/beyond-meat-mcdonalds-vegan-yum-taco-bell-kfc-pizza-hut-2021-2

Written by EBC_admin
September 17, 2021

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